Lariang Tarsier (Tarsius lariang)


MORPHOLOGY:
This nocturnal species has large eyes and large ears that are mobile. The Lariang tarsier has a special adaptation in its neck vertebrae to help it turn its head 180 degrees, which it needs to do because its eyes cannot move. This species lacks a tapetum lucidum found in most nocturnal animals. The dental formula of this species is 2:1:3:3 on the upper jaw and 1:1:3:3 on the lower jaw (Nowak, 1999). This species has relatively small upper canines (Nowak, 1999). The third finger (middle) is longer than any other Sulawesi mainland tarsier (Merker and Groves, 2006). The bulla of this species is relatively narrow compared to the length (Merker and Groves, 2006).

The overall pelage coloration is described as dark gray-buff (Merker and Groves, 2006). The tail is dark, almost blackish, having a thick black terminal tip (Merker and Groves, 2006). On the face there are thick, black paranasal stripes and off-white, barely expressed paralabial hair (Merker and Groves, 2006). At the base of the ears, the Lariang tarsier has a bare spot (Merker and Groves, 2006). This species has well marked black eye rims (Merker and Groves, 2006). The tail, paranasal stripes, and black eye rims distinguish the Lariang tarsier from Dian's tarsier, Tarsius dianae, which is parapatric to the east (Merker and Groves, 2006).

RANGE:
The Lariang tarsier is found on the island of Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia (Merker and Groves, 2006). This species has the following borders on Sulawesi: Palu Bay to the north, the Makassir Strait to the west, Lore-Lindu National Park to the east, and the Karama River, the Toraja Highlands, or the Tempe depression to the south (Merker and Groves, 2006).

ECOLOGY:
The Lariang tarsier is a carnivorous species.

LOCOMOTION:
The Lariang tarsier is a vertical clinger and leaper.

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
duet: This is unique among the other tarsiers and distinguished from other congenerics in the female song, in which the individual notes are upwardly frequency modulated (Merker and Groves, 2006). The frequency of the female song starts out to be between 6-7 kilohertz, then ascends to 7-9 kilohertz in the middle, and ends with 9-14 kilohertz (Merker and Groves, 2006). A female will start her part of the duet with a long-drawn note, 1.5 seconds in length (Merker and Groves, 2006). The female part of the song has a duration of 30 to 45 seconds (Merker and Groves, 2006). The male's song starts out to have a frequency between 4-7 kilohertz, and remains constant until the end of the female's song when frequency will ascend to be between 5-10 kilohertz (Merker and Groves, 2006). At the end of the song, the male will emit up to 5 squeaks (5-10 notes) per female note (Merker and Groves, 2006). A male note has a duration of < 0.1 seconds, and the length of the male song is described as variable, reaching > 1 minute (Merker and Groves, 2006). Males will call sometimes without eliciting a female response (Merker and Groves, 2006).

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:


TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:

REFERENCES:
Merker, S. and Groves, C.P. 2006. Tarsius lariang: A new species from Western Central Sulawesi. International Journal of Primatology. Vol. 27(2), 465-485.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Primates of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

Last Updated: April 17, 2007.
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