Gorontalo Macaque (Macaca nigriscens)


MORPHOLOGY:
This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages. This species has a sagittal crest.

RANGE:
The gorontalo macaque is found on the islands of Sulawesi, which is part of the country of Indonesia. This species is found in the rainforests at moderate elevations.

ECOLOGY:
The gorontalo macaque is a frugivorous species, but immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops are also consumed. This species especially likes to eat fruits from ficus species. Generally this species raids crops for fruits, vegetables, and maize. This is a diurnal species. Group sizes for the gorontalo macaque range from 1 to 62 individuals. Groups split up into smaller groups when foraging.

LOCOMOTION:
The gorontalo macaque is a quadrupedal species (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The gorontalo macaque has a multimale-multifemale social system. Females remain in their natal group with the onset of maturity, but males will disperse shortly before adolescence. There is a hierarchical system amongst group members based upon the matriline.

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
scream calls: This call is given by the gorontalo macaque when they are approached by a non-group conspecific.

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression (Estes, 1991).

lipsmacking: This is when the lips are protruded, then smacked together repeatedly. For the gorontalo macaque this display communicates aggression.

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:
The gorontalo macaque gives birth to a single offspring.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Last Updated: June 14, 2007.
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