Celebes Macaque (Macaca nigra)


MORPHOLOGY:
This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages. The average body mass for an adult male Celebes macaque is between 9 and 10 kilograms, and for the female it is about 7 kilograms. This species has a sagittal crest.

RANGE:
The Celebes macaque is found on the islands of Sulawesi which is part of the country of Indonesia. This species is found in the rainforests at moderate elevations.
Celebes Macaque


ECOLOGY:
The Celebes macaque is a frugivorous species, but immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops are also consumed. Generally this species raids crops for fruits, vegetables, and maize. This is a diurnal species.

LOCOMOTION:
The Celebes macaque is a quadrupedal species (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The Celebes macaque has a multimale-multifemale social system. Females remain in their natal group with the onset of maturity, but males will disperse shortly before adolescence. There is a hierarchical system amongst group members based upon the matriline.

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
scream calls: This call is given by the Celebes macaque when they are approached by a non-group conspecific.

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression (Estes, 1991).

lipsmacking: This is when the lips are protruded, then smacked together repeatedly. For the Celebes macaque this display communicates aggression.

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:
The Celebes macaque gives birth to a single offspring.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Last Updated: June 14, 2007.
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