Muna-Butung Macaque (Macaca brunescens)


MORPHOLOGY:
This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages.

RANGE:
The muna-butung macaque is found on the islands of Sulawesi which are part of the country of Indonesia. This species lives in the rainforests of moderate elevations.

ECOLOGY:
This is a diurnal species. The muna-butung macaque feeds on fruit and leaves. Group sizes for this species range from 13 to 21 individuals.

LOCOMOTION:
The muna-butung macaque is a quadrupedal species (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The muna-butung macaque has a multimale-multifemale social system. Females remain in their natal group with the onset of maturity, but males will disperse shortly before adolescence. There is a hierarchical system amongst group members based upon the matriline.

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
scream calls: This call is given by the muna-butung macaque when they approached by a non-group conspecific.

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression (Estes, 1991).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:
The muna-butung macaque gives birth to a single offspring.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Last Updated: June 14, 2007.
[The Primata] [Primate Evolution] [Primate Taxonomy] [Primate Conservation] [Primate Fact Sheets] [Primate Definitions] [Primate Store] [Macaca Links]