Black Gibbon (Hylobates concolor)


MORPHOLOGY:
This species has relatively long forearms which assist it in suspensory behavior. This species has throat sac located beneath the chin to help enhance the calls. The black gibbon lacks a tail, caudal vertebrae. The average body mass for an adult male black gibbon is around 6.3 kilograms, and for the female it is also around 6.3 kilograms (Fleagle, 1988). The pelage of the male is black with white or reddish cheeks and the females have a beige or buffy colored pelage.

RANGE:
The black gibbon is found in the countries of Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. This species is found in semideciduous monsoon forests and tropical evergreen forests. The black gibbon prefers the upper canopy of the forest.
Black Gibbon (adult male)


Black Gibbon (female eating) ECOLOGY:
The black gibbon is a frugivorous species, but will also consume immature leaves and insects. The black gibbon prefers to consume fruits high in sugar such as the fig (Ficus). This an arboreal and a diurnal species. This species sleeps and rests in the emergent trees (Leighton, 1987).


LOCOMOTION:
The black gibbon is a true brachiator which means it moves by suspensory behavior (Fleagle, 1988). The brachiation is of a type where the black gibbon throws itself from tree to tree over gaps of 10 meters or more using there arms (Fleagle, 1988). This species also climbs when moving slowly and feeding (Fleagle, 1988). This species is also able to move for short distances by bipedalism (Fleagle, 1988).

Black Gibbon (adult male) Black Gibbon (adult male)


Black Gibbons (adult male and juvenile) SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The black gibbon has a monogamous mating and social system. It has been reported that in some locations this species may be polygynous. This is a territorial species.

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
duetting: These are vocalizations which occur between the breeding male and female, and is dominated by the female. This vocalization is important because it helps to maintain the pair bond between the breeding pair and also it helps to establish and maintain the territory.


OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
social grooming: This is when one individual grooms another and is used to reinforce the bonds between individuals.
Black Gibbon (adult female)


REPRODUCTION:
The black gibbon gives birth to a single offspring.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Leighton, D.R. 1987. Gibbons: Territoriality and Monogamy. In Primate Societies. eds. B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker. University of Chicago Press.

Black Gibbon (adult female) Black Gibbon (two month infant)


Last Updated: May 28, 2007.
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