Northern Needle-clawed Galago (Euoticus pallidus)


MORPHOLOGY:
The premolars are shaped more like canines, and the nails are more claw-like. The hands and feet are large to assist in leaping. This species has a well-developed tarsus (Charles-Dominique, 1972). The anterior teeth of the lower jaw are modified to form a tooth comb that is used for grooming (Charles-Dominique and Bearder, 1979). On the second digit of the foot that nail has been modified to form a toilet claw used to clean the ears and other areas the tooth comb and the tongue cannot reach (Charles-Dominique and Bearder, 1979). The nails of the digits except for the first keeled dorsally and pointed terminally (Nash et al., 1989). The males have penile spines that are unidentate (Nash et al., 1989). This species also has comparatively large penile spines and these may help to function during copulation to maintain a lock and assist with the transport of spermatozoa into the cervical canal (Dixson, 1989). This species has a relatively long baculum and this may lead to this species maintaining intromission after ejaculation or extended periods of intromission during copulation (Dixson, 1987). The penile morphology of this species is different from that of Euoticus elegantulus (Rowe, 1996). This species has a pelage color that is yellowish gray dorsally and white ventrally (Rowe, 1996). The eyes of this species are colored bright orange to yellowish gold (Rowe, 1996). This species has a dorsal stripe and the tail lacks the white tip that Euoticus elegantulus possesses (Rowe, 1996). The average body mass for this species ranges from 270 to 360 grams (Happold, 1987; cited in Nowak, 1999).

RANGE:
This species is found in the countries of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria (Rowe, 1996).

ECOLOGY:
This species primarily a gummivorous species (Charles-Dominique, 1977). This is an arboreal species.

LOCOMOTION:
The northern needle-clawed galago is a quadrupedal runner and a leaper. When climbing vertical trunks, the northern needle-clawed galago can climb either head upward or head downward (Walker, 1979).

parachuting: this is when the northern needle-clawed galago free-falls from tree to tree. It spreads its arms and legs out to achieve maximum surface area to slow its descent.

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
This species is nocturnal and forages solitarily. Usually a male's territory overlaps a few females. In an introduction experiment it was found that females will chase other adult females introduced into their home range (Charles-Dominique and Bearder, 1979). Social relationships amongst females only occur in matriarchal groupings and this occurs at dawn when they come together after foraging during the night where close contact and mutual licking will occur between females and this only with sleeping in groups may reinforce social bonds (Charles-Dominique and Bearder, 1979). The female northern needle-clawed galago, like other galagines, transport her offspring in her mouth.

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
territorial call: this call sound like "quee" and is bird-like in sound (Estes, 1991). This call will elicit similar calls from area conspecifics (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979).

alarm call: these calls made be uttered in response to a predator or when awoken suddenly. This call sounds like "tee-ya" (Estes, 1991; Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979). This call is uttered in a continuous fashion with intervals of 1.5 to 2 seconds (Charles-Dominique, 1977).

infant call: this call sounds like "tsic" (Estes, 1991; Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979). This call is uttered in response to excitement (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979). This call has a duration of 0.035 seconds (Charles-Dominique, 1977).

maternal call: this call sounds like the infant "tsic" call, but is more powerful (Estes, 1991; Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979).

contact-rejection call: this call sounds like "ki-ki-ki", and is staccato (Estes, 1991). This is heard when an individual rejects contact with an approaching conspecific (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979).

aggressive call: This is uttered when an individual is attacked by a conspecific or a predator (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979). This call is a two-phase grunt often described as a "hoarse growl", and in this call a call is superimposed over the contact-rejection call (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979).

distress call: This is when an individual is extremely frightened, as in being in pain (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979). This call is a high-pitched plaintive call that sounds like "weet" (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979).

gathering call: This call functions to bring members of a group together at a sleeping site (Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979).

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:
Olfactory communication is important for the northern needle-clawed galago.

direct urine deposition: this is where a northern needle-clawed galago will directly deposit urine upon a substrate (Estes, 1991).

REPRODUCTION:
This species gives birth to a single offspring. The infants are born with eyes open and have the ability to cling to their mother's fur right after birth (Klopfer and Boskoff, 1979).

REFERENCES:
Charles-Dominique, P. 1972. Ecology and feeding behaviour of five sympatric lorisids in Gabon. in Prosimian Biology. eds. R.D. Martin, G.A. Doyle, and A.C. Walker. Pittsburgh University Press: Pittsburgh.

Charles-Dominique, P. 1977. Ecology and Behaviour of Nocturnal Primates. Columbia University Press: New York.

Charles-Dominique, P. and Bearder, S.K. 1979. Field studies of Lorisid behavior: Methodological aspects. in The Study of Prosimian Behavior. eds. G.A. Doyle and R.D. Martin. Academic Press: New York.

Dixson, A.F. 1987. Baculum length and copulatory behavior in primates. American Journal of Primatology. Vol. 13, 51-60.

Dixson, A.F. 1989. Sexual selection, genital morphology, and copulatory behavior in male galagos. International Journal of Primatology. Vol. 10(1), 47-55.

Estes, R. D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press

Happold, D.C. 1987. The Mammals of Nigeria. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Klopfer, P.H. and Boskoff, K.J. 1979. Maternal behavior in prosimians. in The Study of Prosimian Behavior. eds. G.A. Doyle and R.D. Martin. Academic Press: New York.

Nash, L.T., Bearder, S.K., and Olson, T.R. 1989. Synopsis of Galago species characteristics. International Journal of Primatology. Vol. 10(1), 57-80.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Primates of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press: East Hampton, New York.

Walker, A. 1979. Prosimian locomotor behavior. in The Study of Prosimian Behavior. eds. G.A. Doyle and R.D. Martin. Academic Press: New York.

Last Updated: April 1, 2007.
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