Sclater's Monkey (Cercopithecus sclateri)


MORPHOLOGY:
This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages. The dental formula of Sclater's monkey is 2:1:2:3 on both the upper and lower jaws (Ankel-Simons, 2000). This species has a pelage coloration that is gray on the ventral side and olivaceous on the dorsal side (Oates and Anadu, 1989). On the face this species has light yellow cheek tufts and a white ear fringe (Oates and Anadu, 1989). The facial skin is pale bluish or pink around the eyes (Groves, 2001). The crown is golden-flecked and the throat is white (Oates and Anadu, 1989). The forearms are gray (Groves, 2001). The tail of Sclater's monkey is very light gray with a red ventral base (Oates and Anadu, 1989). Adult females have an average body mass of around 2.5 kilograms and adult males have an average body mass of around 4.0 kilograms (Fleagle, 1999).

RANGE:
Sclater's monkey is endemic to southern Nigeria. This species is found east of the Niger River and west of the Cross River (Tooze, 1995; Oates et al., 1992). Sclater's monkey is found along the Blue River, Enyong Creek, Ikpa River, and Stubbs Creek in southern Nigeria (Tooze, 1995). This species prefers to live in swampy areas (Baker, 1998). This species also lives in riverine forests and small remnant sacred tree groves (Rowe, 1996).

ECOLOGY:
Sclater's monkey is a frugivorous species. This species will raid cultivated crops, including oil palm nuts (Rowe, 1996). This is a diurnal and an arboreal species. Tooze (1995) found groups of this species to be around 7 individuals. Group sizes can range from 15-30 individuals (Rowe, 1996). This species is sympatric with Perodicticus potto, Arctocebus calabarensis, Cercocebus torquatus, Cercopithecus mona, and Cercopithecus nictitans (Tooze, 1995).

LOCOMOTION:
Sclater's monkey moves through the forest quadrupedally (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
Sclater's monkey has a multimale-multifemale social structure (Rowe, 1996).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
loud call: This call is uttered by the adult male (Tooze, 1995).

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
staring: This display by Sclater's monkey is used as a threat display (Estes, 1991). The eyes are fixed on the stimulus and the eyebrows are raised and the scalp is retracted, the facial skin is also stretched by moving the ears back (Estes, 1991). Underneath the eye lids the color is different which contrasts sharply with the surrounding facial color (Estes, 1991)

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression and often occurs with head-bobbing (Estes, 1991).

head-bobbing: This is used as a threat display by Sclater's monkey and head bobs up and down (Estes, 1991). This often occurs with staring with open mouth (Estes, 1991).

fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).

yawning: This is where the mouth is opened to reveal the canines, and is performed by the adult male (Estes, 1991). This is used as an expression of tension or as a threat display (Estes, 1991).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
social grooming: This is when one individual will groom another, removing dead skin and parasites.
REPRODUCTION:
Sclater's monkey gives birth to a single offspring. Females are the ones who solicit copulation from the male (Estes, 1991).

presenting: This behavior is preformed by the female to elicit copulation from the male; this pattern tells the male that she is ready for copulation (Estes, 1991).

pouting: Females do this during copulation while looking over their shoulder at the male (Estes, 1991). The lower lip is extruded forward while the lips remain closed (Estes, 1991).

REFERENCES:
Ankel-Simons, F. 2000. Primate Anatomy. Academic Press: San Diego.

Baker, L.R. 1998. One monkey's worth. IPPL News. Vol. 25(1), 11-14.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press: New York.

Fleagle, J. G. 1999. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press: San Diego.

Groves, C.P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington, D.C.

Oates, J.F. and Anadu, P.A. 1989. A field observation of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri Pocock 1904). Folia Primatologica. Vol. 52, 93-96.

Oates, J., Werre, L., Inaharo, I., and Nwankpa, N. 1992. Sclater's guenon traditionally protected in Nigeria. (abstract) XIV Congress of the International Primate Society. Strasbourg, France, 0163.

Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press: East Hampton, New York.

Tooze, Z. 1995. Update on Sclater's guenon Cercopithecus sclateri in southern Nigeria. African Primates. Vol. 1(2), 38-42.

Last Updated: June 10, 2007.
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