Campbell's Monkey (Cercopithecus campbelli)


MORPHOLOGY:
The Campbell's monkey has cheek pouches to store food in while it travels.

RANGE:
The Campbell's monkey lives in various habitats including: primary lowland rainforest, secondary forest, riverine forest, and dryer woodland (Cords, 1987). This species is found in Western and Central Africa.

ECOLOGY:
The Campbell's monkey forages for fruits, leaves, and gums (Bourliere et al., 1970). Group sizes for this species range from 8 to 13 individuals (Bourliere et al., 1970). This is a diurnal species.

LOCOMOTION:
The Campbell's monkey moves through the forest quadrupedally (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
Infanticide might occur in groups of Campbell's monkey (Galat-Loung and Galat, 1979). This species is territorial and defends its territory from other conspecific groups (Galat-Loung and Galat, 1979). Allomaternal care, when a mother will let other females care for her infants, occurs in this species (Bourliere et al., 1970). In this species there are two kinds of groups, one with one adult male and a number of females and another comprised only of males (Cords, 1987).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
trill: These calls are soft and oscillating that descend in pitch, and are emitted by subadults when approached by an adult (Estes, 1991). This call functions to communicate submissiveness (Estes, 1991).

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
staring: This display by the Campbell's monkey is used as a threat display (Estes, 1991). The eyes are fixed on the stimulus and the eyebrows are raised and the scalp is retracted, the facial skin is also stretched by moving the ears back (Estes, 1991). Underneath the eye lids the color is different which contrasts sharply with the surrounding facial color (Estes, 1991)

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression and often occurs with head-bobbing (Estes, 1991).

head-bobbing: This is used as a threat display by the Campbell's monkey and head bobs up and down (Estes, 1991). This often occurs with staring with open mouth (Estes, 1991).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
nose-to-nose greeting: This is when two Campbell's monkeys will approach each other and touch the muzzles together (Estes, 1991). This behavior is a greeting behavioral pattern and usually precedes play or grooming (Estes, 1991).

REPRODUCTION:
The Campbell's monkey gives birth to a single offspring.

presenting: This behavior is preformed by the female to elicit copulation from the male; this pattern tells the male that she is ready for copulation (Estes, 1991).

REFERENCES:
Bourliere, F., Hunkeler, C., and Bertrand, M. 1970. Ecology and Behaviour of Lowe's Guenon (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) in the Ivory Coast. In Old World Monkeys. Eds J.R. Napier and P.H. Napier. Academic Press.

Cords, M. 1987. Forest Guenons and Patas Monkeys: Male-Male Competition in One-Male Groups. In Primate Societies. Eds. B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker. University of Chicago Press.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Galat-Loung, A. and Galat, G. 1979. Consequences Comportementales des Perturbations Sociales Repetees Sur une Troupe de Mones de Lowe Cercopithecus campbelli lowei de Cote d'Ivoire. Terre et Vie. Vol. 33, 4-57.

Last Updated: June 8, 2007.
[The Primata] [Primate Evolution] [Primate Taxonomy] [Primate Conservation] [Primate Fact Sheets] [Primate Definitions] [Primate Store] [Cercopithecus Links]