Ka'apor Capuchin (Cebus kaapori)



MORPHOLOGY:
This species has relatively long limbs compared to trunk size. The Ka'apor capuchin has a prehensile tail. This species is sexually dimorphic. Fingers on this species are short and the thumb is opposable (Fleagle, 1988). The premolars of the Ka'apor capuchin are large, and the molars are square shaped with a thick enamel to help with cracking nuts (Fleagle, 1988). This species has a longer body and is less robust than other members of the genus Cebus (Queiroz, 1992). This species has a body which is grayish agouti-brown in color with shoulders that are are silver-gray to beige in color (Queiroz, 1992). The hands and feet are blackish in color for this species (Queiroz, 1992). The face has a pink to flesh-like color and naked (Queiroz, 1992). The ears are also naked and have a pink color to them (Queiroz, 1992). This species has a black colored cap that is most prominent on the crown and is triangular in shape (Queiroz, 1992). This species is said to resemble Cebus olivaceus most closely (Queiroz, 1992). This species has an average body mass of 2.6 kilograms for the adult (Lopes and Ferrari, 1996).

RANGE:
The Ka'apor capuchin is found in the country of Brazil (Kinzey, 1997). This species is found in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Para, and the range extends from the Tocantins river in the West and South to the Pindare river in the East (Lopes and Ferrari, 1996). This species is lives in the lowland Amazonian high forest under 200 meters of altitude, in the "Cocais" forest, in old fallows, and in pristine high forests (Queiroz, 1992).

ECOLOGY:
The Ka'apor capuchin is primarily frugivorous, but also eats nuts, insects, and flowers. This species consumes palm fruit nuts, allowing it to live in the "Cocais" forests (Queiroz, 1992).

LOCOMOTION:
The Ka'apor capuchin moves through the forest canopy quadrupedally and they use their prehensile tail during feeding (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The Ka'apor capuchin has polygamous mating system with one male receiving most of the copulations, although sometimes a subordinate male may copulate with a female (Kinzey, 1997). The social system found in this species is multimale-multifemale (Kinzey, 1997). This species has a matrilineal dominance hierarchy (Kinzey, 1997). The females of this species are philopatric and the males disperse (Kinzey, 1997). This species was seen foraging and resting with Chiropotes satanas, which may mean it forms mixed-species associations with this species (Lopes and Ferrari, 1996).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
staring open-mouth face: This is where the eyes are opened wide, the mouth is open with the teeth covered by the lips, and the eyebrows are lowered (Jolly, 1972). This occurs when mobbing a predator or serves to communicate an inhibited threat (Jolly, 1972).

staring bared-teeth scream face: This is where the eye are opened wide, the mouth is open with the corners drawn back so that the teeth and gums are revealed (Jolly, 1972). This display occurs with terror flight (Jolly, 1972).

silent bared-teeth face: This is where the eyes are staring at the stimulus, the eye brows are either relaxed or up, and the corners of the mouth are drawn back allowing the teeth to show (Jolly, 1972). This is used to communicate submission or a friendly approach (Jolly, 1972).

bared-teeth gecker face: This is like silent bared-teeth face only with a rapid noise attached to it (Jolly, 1972). This display occurs with defensive threat calls and during infant squeaks (Jolly, 1972).

lip-smacking face: This is where the eyes are opened wide, and the tongue is moving in and out of the mouth while the jaw is making sucking movements (Jolly, 1972). This is used as a greeting, during sex, and during grooming (Jolly, 1972).

tense-mouth face: This is where the eyes are opened wide, the mouth is narrowed to a slit, and the eyebrows are lowered (Jolly, 1972). This is used to communicate a confident threat or an attack (Jolly, 1972).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
social grooming: This is where one individual grooms another and is used to reinforce social bonds.

REPRODUCTION:
The Ka'apor capuchin gives birth to a single offspring.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Jolly, A. 1972. The Evolution of Primate Behavior. Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y.

Kinzey, W.G. 1997. Cebus. in New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. ed. Warren G. Kinzey, Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Lopes, M.A. and Ferrari, S.F. 1996. Preliminary Observations on the Ka'apor Capuchin Cebus kaapori Queiroz 1992 from Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Biological Conservation Vol. 76, 321-324.

Queiroz, H.L. 1992. A New Species of Capuchin Monkey, Genus Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Cebidae Primates) from Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana, Zoologia Vol. 15, 1-13.

Last Updated: May 11, 2007.
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