White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons)



MORPHOLOGY:
The average body mass for the white-fronted capuchin is about 3 kilograms. This species has relatively long limbs compared to trunk size. The white-fronted capuchin has a prehensile tail. This species is sexually dimorphic. Fingers on this species are short and the thumb is opposable (Fleagle, 1988). The premolars of the white-fronted capuchin are large, and the molars are square shaped with a thick enamel to help with cracking nuts (Fleagle, 1988).

RANGE:
The white-fronted capuchin is found in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. This species prefers to live in primary and advanced secondary forests. This species prefers canopy trees over 30 meters high with crowns 55 meters in diameter (Kinzey, 1997).

ECOLOGY:
The white-fronted capuchin is primarily frugivorous, but also eats nuts, insects, and flowers. The favorite fruit for this species is the Ficus and it also favors the Scheelea palm seeds (Kinzey, 1997). Group sizes range from 15 to 30 individuals.

LOCOMOTION:
The white-fronted capuchin moves through the forest canopy quadrupedally and they use their prehensile tail during feeding (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The white-fronted capuchin has polygamous mating system, although sometimes a subordinate male may copulate with a female (Kinzey, 1997). The social system found in this species is multimale-multifemale (Kinzey, 1997). This species has a matrilineal dominance hierarchy (Kinzey, 1997). The females of this species are philopatric and the males disperse (Kinzey, 1997)

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
staring open-mouth face: This is where the eyes are opened wide, the mouth is open with the teeth covered by the lips, and the eyebrows are lowered (Jolly, 1972). This occurs when mobbing a predator or serves to communicate an inhibited threat (Jolly, 1972).

staring bared-teeth scream face: This is where the eye are opened wide, the mouth is open with the corners drawn back so that the teeth and gums are revealed (Jolly, 1972). This display occurs with terror flight (Jolly, 1972).

silent bared-teeth face: This is where the eyes are staring at the stimulus, the eye brows are either relaxed or up, and the corners of the mouth are drawn back allowing the teeth to show (Jolly, 1972). This is used to communicate submission or a friendly approach (Jolly, 1972).

bared-teeth gecker face: This is like silent bared-teeth face only with a rapid noise attached to it (Jolly, 1972). This display occurs with defensive threat calls and during infant squeaks (Jolly, 1972).

lip-smacking face: This is where the eyes are opened wide, and the tongue is moving in and out of the mouth while the jaw is making sucking movements (Jolly, 1972). This is used as a greeting, during sex, and during grooming (Jolly, 1972).

tense-mouth face: This is where the eyes are opened wide, the mouth is narrowed to a slit, and the eyebrows are lowered (Jolly, 1972). This is used to communicate a confident threat or an attack (Jolly, 1972).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
social grooming: This is where one individual grooms another and is used to reinforce social bonds.

REPRODUCTION:
The white-fronted capuchin gives birth to a single offspring.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Jolly, A. 1972. The Evolution of Primate Behavior. Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y.

Kinzey, W.G. 1997. Cebus. in New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. ed. Warren G. Kinzey, Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Last Updated: May 10, 2007.
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