Black-tailed Marmoset (Callithrix melanura)


MORPHOLOGY:
The Black-tailed marmoset has nails on the digits that are more claw-like. The dental formula for this species is 2:1:3:2 on both the lower and upper jaws (Ankel-Simons, 2000). The overall body pelage is dark brown with the thighs having a white stripe and crown being brown (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The ventral side is fawn-white in color (Groves, 2001). The inner side of the shank is orange (Groves, 2001). This species has a black colored tail (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The ears are hairless (Groves, 2001).

RANGE:
This species is found in Eastern Bolivia, Northeastern Paraguay, and parts of Southwestern Brazil (Nowak, 1999). The black-tailed marmoset is found east of the Rio Aripuana (Rylands, 1981). This species is found predominately in the low vine forest in the middle levels of the forest (Wallace et al., 1998). In the chaco of northern Paraguay, this species was found most frequently in tall forests, with canopies of 20-25 meters and emergents up to 30 meters (Stallings and Mittermeier, 1983).

ECOLOGY:
The mean group size for the black-tailed marmoset is 6.2 individuals (Wallace et al., 1998). Stallings and Mittermeier (1983) found in the chaco of northern Paraguay group sizes ranged from 5-14 individuals. This is a frugivorous species (Rowe, 1996). This species consumes tree exudates, and Rylands (1984) found that the species Spondias lutea, Diplotropis sp., and Sterculia stipulifera were utilized for exudates.

LOCOMOTION:
The Black-tailed marmoset moves quadrupedally through the forest and is capable of short leaps (Fleagle, 1988)

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
Males disperse from their natal groups (Stallings and Mittermeier, 1983).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
loud shrill: In this call the mouth is wide open, lasts for 2 seconds, and has a fundamental frequency of 7 kilohertz (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is emitted as a contact call when the receiver is outside of visual contact (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is heard by all group members (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The motivation for this call is to maintain contact and the response is a reciprocal call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

trill: This call is a repeated element of varying length that is similar to whirr but with frequency fluctuating cycles of 1 kilohertz (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is very common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members perform this call and this is heard during intragroup contact calls, play, and adult-infant interactions (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is responded to with a reciprocal call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

see: This call is a brief soft whistle that is made with the mouth closed (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is heard in situations of mild alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Any group member can emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is motivated by fear and alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Receivers respond to this call by becoming more alert (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

seep: This is a brief, loud call with a high fundamental frequency (20 kilohertz) and with the mouth half open (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is heard in situations of alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is motivated by fear and alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The function of this call is to communicate alarm and is responded to by freezing and uttering the same call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

twitter: This call is like seep, but with a lower frequency and regularly patterned (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is very common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is heard in situations of mild disturbance, noise movement, and intergroup conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Receivers respond with reciprocating similar calls (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tsak: This is similar to seep, but louder with a lower frequency and a rapidly decreasing fundamental frequency (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is heard in situations with ek and cough, alarm, and approach of a predator (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The motivation for this call is alarm and defense (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is used as a mobbing call, all other individuals will respond by using a similar call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

loud tsak: This call is similar to tsak, but very loud, with the mouth wide open, and repeated in a series (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is sometimes emitted with very rapid tongue in/out (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is heard in situations of mobbing and during intergroup conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is motivated by intense alarm and defense (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a mobbing call and other group members will respond by giving a similar call, accompanied by pilo-erection (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

chirping: This call occurs in a rapid series, with a frequency having a range of 8-5 kilohertz (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is heard in situations when resting close to others, at the sight of food, and to an infant (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call has an amicable motivation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this vocalization is a similar call or to nuzzle (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

cough: This call has the mouth closed and a low frequency (average 5 kilohertz) (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call has a short element with up to 5 harmonic components (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call occurs with ek in situations of mild alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is motivated by fearful approach (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

ek: This is where the mouth is slightly open with a fundamental frequency of 0.9 kilohertz (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call occurs with cough, seep, and tsak, and this is mild vocal mobbing (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members emit this call (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is motivated by mild alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

scream: This is a loud long call, with the mouth open that consists of many harmonics from 1 to 7 kilohertz (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call is very common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). There are three intensities to this call: given by infants when exploring during play, accompanying bared teeth gecker, and accompanying bared teeth scream (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is rare in the adult pair (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This call has playful and submissive motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). During play this is given by younger individuals towards older individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This also can function as a submissive response (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:
anal scent mark: This is when an individual will rub the genital area on to a substrate while in a sitting position (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This occurs during feeding on gum and after huddling or copulation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All group members perform this behavior, although it is more common in older individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This could function as intra-group communication or as a suppression of reproduction (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

sternal marking: This is when an individual will pull the chest and chin along a substrate, marking with the sternal gland (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is done on travel routes and during intergroup conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is found to be performed in adults and young individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior seems to relate to the status of an individual within a group (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

allomark: This is when an individual will lift the tail and rub the genital area on another individual (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is very rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is only found in adult individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

muzzle rub: This is when an individual will rub the muzzle in a scent mark of another individual (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Any individual will perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
bouncing gait: This is an individual runs having an exaggerated bouncing movement (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen during situations of play and in locomotion by infants (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Young individuals perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This functions to initiate play and is motivated by the need to play or by exploration (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to bouncing gait is that the individual may be played with by the receiver (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

gallop: This is when an individual runs quickly; the tail may be extended during this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is described as being very common in occurrence (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during play and running away (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to initiate or respond to play, or this serves to flee from an aggressor or predator (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has both playful and aggressive or fearful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

stalk: This is when one individual will visually fixate on another whilst hiding, and makes jerky movements towards the stimulus (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a common behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of play and the ontogeny of play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to communicate the initiation of play and has playful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the sender may be played with by the receiver (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

slide: This is when an individual moves on the side, and is propelled by the arms and legs (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen during social and solitary play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is said to be performed by offspring (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has playful motivations and serves as a response to play initiation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

roll: This is when an individual rolls onto the back or side, and includes a somersault (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a common behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of social and solitary play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is said to be performed by offspring (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has playful motivations and serves as a response to play initiation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

leg stand: This is when an individual stands on its hind-legs with the hands outstretched (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen when the individual is observing an object or a conspecific (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions as being a non-response or response to aggression and is motivated by interest and fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This also may be performed to gain better visibility (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

withdrawal gesture: This is when an individual withdraws the body and arms remain fully or partially extended (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals except the adult pair (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions to communicate submission and is motivated by fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the receiver may withdraw or attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

cringe: This is described as a more extreme form of withdrawal gesture, but having the hind-legs bent (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals except the adult pair (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions to communicate extreme submission and is motivated by extreme fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the receiver may withdraw or attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

lipsmacking: This when the lips are smacked in a rhythmic motion (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This may be combined with slow tongue in/out (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The frequency of this behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by adult pairs and is seen during sexual solicitation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions to appease an individual making a copulatory approach and is motivation by copulation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this is reciprocal behavior, remain stationary, or slow tongue in/out (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

slow tongue in/out: This is when the tongue is moved in and out rhythmically (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during grooming (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen sometimes during grooming, but not always (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

quick tongue in/out: This is when the tongue is moved more quickly in and out as compared to slow tongue in/out (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The frequency of this behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by the adult pair and is seen in situations of sexual solicitation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions to appease an individual making a copulatory approach and is motivation by copulation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this behavior is reciprocal behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

very rapid tongue in/out: This is when the mouth is open wide, accompanied by rapid tongue movements (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of agonistic encounters and is performed by adult individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is given towards other individuals and potential predators and may be motivated as a defensive response to threat (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

head cock stare: This is when an individual moves the head from side to side while observing the stimulus (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen when an individual is observing an object or conspecific (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This functions to aid vision and is motivated by interest (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

open mouth: This is when an individual has the mouth open with the teeth sometimes showing (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during play bouts, often combined with other play patterns (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this display, though it tends to be used more by adult males (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to metacommunicate play and is motivate by playful intentions (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the receiver may play or not (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

slit stare: This is when an individual stares with the eyelids half closed, making the eyes appear as a slit (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all group members and is seen in agonistic situations and during play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a response to an approach by an aggressive individual or when approaching a strange object (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

rampant head toss: This when an individual stands upright on the hindlegs and tosses the head back and forth (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).The frequency of this behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).This is seen as an agonistic display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all group members (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is part of an aggressive display to another group (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

partial open mouth: This is when the middle portion of the mouth is open and the teeth visible (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen when approaching a strange object or during an agonistic situation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a response to being approached by an aggressive conspecific or when approaching a strange object (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is motivated by fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

bared-teeth gecker: This is where the lips are retracted, middle portion of the mouth is open, and the teeth are visible (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is accompanied by a gecker vocalization (scream) (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is very common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during agonistic situations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by any subordinate individual (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display is performed by a subordinate during a fearful situation and has submissive motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

bared-teeth scream: The lips are retracted more and the mouth open wider as compared to bared-teeth gecker (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during agonistic situations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display is performed by an individual who is being attacked by another, and it has fear and submissive motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tufts/ear flick: This is when an individual will flick the tufts/ears back and forth (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior occurs in agonistic situations, but not exclusively (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a submissive response to agonistic situations and is motivated by mild aggression (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tufts/ears flatten: This is where the tufts/ears are flatten against the head (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during agonistic situations and during play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a submissive response to agonistic situations, and in these situations it is motivated by fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tufts/ears forward: This is where the tufts/ears are held forward with the face possibly reddening (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen during aggressive situations and may precede an attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individual perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to communicate aggression and has aggressive motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this is to either retreat or attack on the part of the receiver (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tail coiled: This is when the tail is coiled (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during copulation and performed by adult individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The motivation for this behavior is copulation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tail snake: This is when the tail hair becomes slightly pilo-erected and the tail trashed about in a snake-like movement (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is very rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of extreme stress (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is most commonly seen in adolescent individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is motivated by stress and may be accompanied by submissive vocalizations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This may serve to communicate stress/alarm to other group members (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

arch bristle locomotion: This is when an individual will strut with the back arched and the pelage erect (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The pelage of the tail is more erect at the base (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during intergroup display and less frequently during intragroup displays (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals over 10 months perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is used in ritualized display with other group members and has agonistic motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this is that another group will reciprocate (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

pilo-tail: This is when part or all of the tail pelage is erect (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of alarm (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior has fearful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

pilo-crown: This where the hair of the crown is erect (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is very rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by individuals under 12 months of age and is seen in situations of intense alarm and stress (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior serves to communicate alarm or stress to other individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tail raised present: This is where the tail is semi-piloerected and raised, but not coiled (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is very rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by adult individuals and is seen during agonistic situations combined with stress (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has an agonistic motivation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

pilo rump present: This is where the tail and body hair are erected and the rump presented (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by adult individuals and is seen during intergroup agonistic displays (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has agonistic motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
face/body nuzzle: This is when one individual nuzzles the face or body of another (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of low activity (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior, although it is common between older and younger individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is used to communicate amicable behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is a vocalization or reciprocal amicable behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

anal muzzle: This is when an individual will nuzzle the anus of another, who has the tail raised (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during bouts of scent marking (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Any group member will perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

licking: This is when one individual will lick another (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is most commonly directed towards infants and is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This functions to communicate amicable behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

mount: This is when one individual will mount the back of another, gripping with the hands and feet (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during play and copulation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). During play, any individual will perform this behavior, and during copulation, only males (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This functions to communicate the commencement of play or copulation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

copulate: This is when a male mounts the back of the female, having the back legs on a substrate, and showing several bouts of thrusting (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The male's tail may be coiled (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during mating, but is different than actual mating (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is done most commonly by the adult pair (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is used to bring about copulation and has sexual motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The female response is normally amicable (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

body rub: This is when an individual will the body against another (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is very rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is most commonly seen in the adult pair and is seen in newly paired individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior has amicable motivations and is responded to with reciprocal behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

play wrestle: This behavior is a grappling movement using the hands and feet, while administering inhibited bites (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during bouts of play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior, especially the younger ones (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this is play behavior/mutual wrestling (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

bat: This is when one individual will hit another with one or both hands (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of play or amicable contact (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This functions to initiate play or contact (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this may be play or a nuzzle bat (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

cuff: This is when one individual will hit another sharply with the hand (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations when an older individual is chastising another younger individual (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The motivation for this is mild aggression (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this behavior is to withdraw, emitting submission calls (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

snap bite: This is a sharp, short bite given to the neck region (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is usually given by older individuals to younger ones and often occurs with cuff (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has mild aggressive motivations and is responded to with withdrawal and submissive vocalizations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

play bite: This is when an individual will give an inhibited bite to another's body (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of playful interactions (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This used to initiate play and has playful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is to play or not to play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

uninhibited bite: This is a strong bite usually given to the head or limb, that sometimes results in bleeding (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is given by any individuals over 5 months of age and is seen during aggressive interactions (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has aggressive motivations and is responded to with withdrawal or attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

grooming: This is when one individual parts the hair of another with hands to remove particles with the teeth (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of low activity (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior may elicit more grooming (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The breeding female of a group tends to groom and be groomed by others more than other group members (Rylands, 1982). This behavior was found to occur most frequently during the middle of the day (1130 to 1300 hours) (Rylands, 1982).

pounce: This is when one individual pounces rapidly on another (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during play and is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is used to initiate a play bout and has playful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

REPRODUCTION:
This species usually gives birth to twin offspring. The interbirth interval for this species ranges from 5.5 to 10 months (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

REFERENCES:

Ankel-Simons, F. 2000. Primate Anatomy. Academic Press: San Diego.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Groves, C.P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington, D.C.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Primates of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.

Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press: East Hampton, New York.

Rylands, A.B. 1981. Preliminary field observations on the marmoset Callithrix humeralifer intermedius (Hershkovitz, 1977) at Dardanelos, Rio Aripuana, Mato Grosso. Primates. Vol. 22, 46-59.

Rylands, A.B. 1984. Exudate-eating and tree-gouging by marmosets (Callitrichidae, Primates).In: Tropical Rain Forest: The Leeds Symposium. eds. A.C. Chadwick and S.L. Sutton. Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Leeds, p. 155-168.

Stallings, J.R. and Mittermeier, R.A. 1983. The black-tailed marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay. American Journal of Primatology. Vol. 4, 159-163.

Stevenson, M.F. and Rylands, A.B. 1988. The marmosets, genus Callithrix. in Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2. eds. R.A. Mittermeier, A.B. Rylands, A.F. Coimbra-Filho, and G.A.B. da Fonseca. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.

Wallace, R.B., Painter, R.L.E., and Taber, A.B. 1998. Primate Diversity, Habitat Preferences, and Population Density Estimates in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. American Journal of Primatology. Vol. 46, 197-211.

Last Updated: April 14, 2008.
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