Geoffroy's Tufted-ear Marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi)


MORPHOLOGY:
The Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset has nonopposable thumbs and nails of the digits which are claw-like.

RANGE:
The Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset is found in the Atlantic rainforests of south-east Brazil (Rylands et al., 1993). This species occurs in the lowlands of the forest (Rylands and de Faria, 1993).

ECOLOGY:
The Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset is gummivorous. This species has also been known to follow army ant swarms which flush many organisms up towards the trees making them available for the marmosets (Rylands et al., 1989).

LOCOMOTION:
The Geoffroy's tufted-ear Marmoset moves through the forest quadrupedally, but is capable of leaping (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
After birth, helpers including males help raise the offspring, this is most evident during the second month (Santos et al., 1997). This species is sexually monogamous. In large groups, the young of the Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset show early independence (Santos et al., 1997). Also the fathers of small groups spend more time carrying the infants (Santos et al., 1997).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
bouncing gait: This is an individual runs having an exaggerated bouncing movement (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen during situations of play and in locomotion by infants (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). Young individuals perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This functions to initiate play and is motivated by the need to play or by exploration (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to bouncing gait is that the individual may be played with by the receiver (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

gallop: This is when an individual runs quickly; the tail may be extended during this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is described as being very common in occurrence (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during play and running away (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to initiate or respond to play, or this serves to flee from an aggressor or predator (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has both playful and aggressive or fearful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

stalk: This is when one individual will visually fixate on another whilst hiding, and makes jerky movements towards the stimulus (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a common behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of play and the ontogeny of play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to communicate the initiation of play and has playful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the sender may be played with by the receiver (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

slide: This is when an individual moves on the side, and is propelled by the arms and legs (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen during social and solitary play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is said to be performed by offspring (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has playful motivations and serves as a response to play initiation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

roll: This is when an individual rolls onto the back or side, and includes a somersault (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a common behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of social and solitary play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is said to be performed by offspring (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has playful motivations and serves as a response to play initiation (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

leg stand: This is when an individual stands on its hind-legs with the hands outstretched (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen when the individual is observing an object or a conspecific (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions as being a non-response or response to aggression and is motivated by interest and fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This also may be performed to gain better visibility (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

withdrawal gesture: This is when an individual withdraws the body and arms remain fully or partially extended (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals except the adult pair (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions to communicate submission and is motivated by fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the receiver may withdraw or attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

cringe: This is described as a more extreme form of withdrawal gesture, but having the hind-legs bent (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of conflict (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is performed by all individuals except the adult pair (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display functions to communicate extreme submission and is motivated by extreme fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the receiver may withdraw or attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

open mouth: This is when an individual has the mouth open with the teeth sometimes showing (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during play bouts, often combined with other play patterns (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this display, though it tends to be used more by adult males (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to metacommunicate play and is motivate by playful intentions (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is that the receiver may play or not (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tufts/ear flick: This is when an individual will flick the tufts/ears back and forth (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior occurs in agonistic situations, but not exclusively (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a submissive response to agonistic situations and is motivated by mild aggression (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tufts/ears flatten: This is where the tufts/ears are flatten against the head (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during agonistic situations and during play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is a submissive response to agonistic situations, and in these situations it is motivated by fear (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tufts/ears forward: This is where the tufts/ears are held forward with the face possibly reddening (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is rare (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is seen during aggressive situations and may precede an attack (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individual perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This serves to communicate aggression and has aggressive motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this is to either retreat or attack on the part of the receiver (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

arch bristle locomotion: This is when an individual will strut with the back arched and the pelage erect (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The pelage of the tail is more erect at the base (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during intergroup display and less frequently during intragroup displays (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals over 10 months perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is used in ritualized display with other group members and has agonistic motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response to this is that another group will reciprocate (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

tail raised present: This is when the tail is semi-piloerected, raised, and may be coiled (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The genitals are exposed (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during aggressive situations directed at another individual (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals over 8-10 months perform this display (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This has a function during intergroup ritualized displays and during intragroup aggression (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This display has agonistic motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). When used during intragroup aggression, the response is usually a submissive response (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:
play bite: This is when an individual will give an inhibited bite to another's body (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen during situations of playful interactions (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This used to initiate play and has playful motivations (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). The response is to play or not to play (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

grooming: This is when one individual parts the hair of another with hands to remove particles with the teeth (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This behavior is common (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). This is seen in situations of low activity (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988). All individuals perform this behavior (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988; Alonso et al., 2000). Alonso et al. (2000) found that in a group the adult male and a young male were the most active groomers. This behavior may elicit more grooming (Stevenson and Rylands, 1988).

REPRODUCTION:
The Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset gives birth to twins (Fleagle, 1988).

REFERENCES:
Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Rylands, Anthony B. and de Faria, Doris S. 1993. Habitats, Feeding Ecology, and Home Range Size in the genus Callithrix. in Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. ed. Anthony B. Rylands. Oxford University Press.

Rylands, A.B., Monteiro da Cruz, M.A.O., and Ferrari, S.F. 1989. An Association Between Marmosets and Army Ants in Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, Vol. 5, 113-116.

Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F., and Mittermeier, R.A. 1993. Systematics, Geographic Distribution, and Some Notes on the Conservation Status of the Callitrichidae. In Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford University Press.

Santos, C.V., French, J.A., and Otta, E. 1997. Infant Carrying Behavior in Callitrichid Primates: Callithrix and Leontopithecus. International Journal of Primatology, Vol.18, No.6, 889-907.

Stevenson, M.F. and Rylands, A.B. 1988. The marmosets, genus Callithrix. in Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2. eds. R.A. Mittermeier, A.B. Rylands, A.F. Coimbra-Filho, and G.A.B. da Fonseca. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.

Last Updated: August 16, 2010.
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